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Item List

Challenges to Democracy

Analyzing political turmoil in terms of populism, weakening of courts, surveillance, financial crimes, and lack of transnational solidarity challenge democracy which negatively affect youth.

Climate Security

The direct or indirect changes of climate change patterns leads to humanitarian disasters, regional tensions and violence.

Crises across the African Continent

The current African crises are characterised by economic recession, political decline and social tension which pose fundamental problems to indigenous regimes.

Cyber Threats

Cyber threats are becoming increasingly complex, destructive, coercive and ever more frequent. Cyberspace is contested at all times and malicious cyber events occur every day, from low-level to technologically sophisticated attacks.

Economic Crises

Examining stock market crashes, credit crunches, the bursting of financial bubbles, sovereign defaults, and currency crises which impact youth.

Education Inequality

Providing insight on low educational achievement of youth which leads to lowered economic prospects later in life, perpetuating a lack of social mobility across generations

Energy Vulnerabilities

Energy security plays an important role in our common security. The disruption of energy supply could affect security within societies

Hybrid Threats

Hybrid threats combine military and non-military as well as covert and overt means, including disinformation, cyber attacks, economic pressure, deployment of irregular armed groups and use of regular forces.

Mass Migration

Irregular mass migration is among the "hybrid threats" that hostile powers can use to undermine regional stability.


Invisible threat in the form of virus or pandemic does not need military readiness as in traditional security. It rather needs a good healthcare system as part of the national resilience of a country in facing threat.

Resource Scarcity

Climate change causes complications for fresh water management and water scarcity, as well as health issues, biodiversity loss and demographic challenges. Other consequences like famine, drought and marine environmental degradation lead to loss of land and livelihood, and have a disproportionate impact on women and girls, and poor and vulnerable populations.

Rising Powers

Analyzing the evolving nature of rising powers and their complexities, capabilities, and potential outcomes relative to other nations. Military, economic, social, technology, and international image and engagement are examined as key areas of capabilities.

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